The following are test results of our products

Evaluation of light traps, type “Solar Intelligent Insects Killer” for the capture of insects plaguing agriculture cultivation in the savannah of Bogota

Formal report, Bogota, Colombia. Feb. 2008

General considerations about the use of traps to capture insects.

The light traps for the capture of insects has been used for many years in Colombia. In more primitive versions of light traps, a kerosene match was used as a fountain of light that was placed in the middle of a plate of water.

The traps are used principally to keep records of insect population levels rather than for the direct control of the insects. Using this system of monitoring populations, decisions can be made regarding the application of measures of control, such as chemical solutions.

The traps also are used in ecological studies of insect populations in different habitats to establish indexes of wealth, abundance, and diversity of species, among other factors.

Many types of insect traps exist and are commercialized, which vary mainly on the type of attractant (bait) used: Light, color, food, pheromones (including sexual, recognition, aggregation, dispersion, alarm, aggression, markers of insect paths, etc.). There are also traps where insects fall in.

The use of light traps in handling plagues limited to adults of nocturnal species (those who fly, eat, and fuck at night). These species are active during the hours at the start or end of the day mainly; dawn or sunset. A few species are active all night.

To be able to have a significant control over the populations of plagues requires the removal of huge quantities of insects from the agroecosystem. That cannot be achieved with only a few traps. Since the traps are relatively costly, this strategy might not be profitable.

The use of whichever type of trap in the agricultural regions of the country has various limitations. The greatest is perhaps the installment and the time required in the fields to implement them. They also are subject to theft, or destruction.

The small and middle-sized producers are reluctant to install attractant traps of any type. In their culture they believe that they attract the plagues of other places to their land.

The traps, as a tool of monitering and following the insect populations, have been recommended for a long time, but in the majority of the cases the farmers have difficulty with handling the interpretation of the data, from which decisions are made on how to control the populations.

The traps that are evaluated in this project may be more useful in covered greenhouse crops or where farmers can exercise better control over them, rather than in open country or places where you could not exercise constant surveillance. But they are also useful on large plantations, where they can monitor them heavily through well-structured pest management.

INDICES OF BIODIVERSITY

As was already mentioned, the traps also can be used in ecological studies that measure the diversity of the species in a specific habitat or ecosystem, as they allow to sample populations of a community during a time determined and established by a census.

Moreno (2001), in an extended revision about the methods of measuring the biodiversity, established that the biodiversity is defined as “the variability between living organisms, including land and marine organisms, and of other aquatic ecosystems, such as the complex ecology of those that form a part. This includes the diversity within the species, between species, and between ecosystems.”

According to Moreno, the richness is the simplest form of measuring biodiversity, since it is based only on the number of species present, regardless of the relative importance of the species. The ideal form of measuring the richness is to count with a complete inventory that documents the total number of species (S) obtained by a census of the community. That is possible only for certain studies and in a timely manner. The following describes the most common indices for measuring species richness.

Margalef’s Index of Diversity:

ID Mg=S-1 / ln N

Where:
S= number of species
N= number of individuals

This index transforms the number of species per sample at a rate which species are added by expansion of the sample. Assumes a functional relationship between the number of species and the total number of individuals S = kvN where k is a constant. If this is not maintained, then the index varies with the unknown sample size. Using S-1, in place of S, gives ID Mg=0 when there is a single species.

OBJECTIVE

Evaluate the capacity and efficiency of the capture of insects by the SILK traps in both covered greenhouses and uncovered farms in the savannah of Bogota.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The traps described before as “solar intelligent insects killer” is constituted of a solar panel that captures the energy emitted during the day and accumulates it in a 12 volt battery. The light bulb either can be white or black light to attract the insects during the night or semi-darkness. A bowl of water in which the insects are captured is needed. It also consists of a central stem or support for the different implements a base that sustains all of its parts.

These traps were evaluated in the cultivation of tomatoes and flowers grown in greenhouses. They have also been used in farm-grown peas and potatoes, including those grown in large meadows following this procedure.

In the Center of Research of the Colombian Corporation—Corpoica—four traps were installed located like this: one in a greenhouse with the cultivation of tomatoes; one in the countryside with the cultivation of peas; one in the cultivation of potatoes, and one in the cultivation of livestock (figures 1-4).

Three traps will be installed in the Rio Grande region, one in the cultivation of tomatoes in a greenhouse, the second in a. As a comparison, a trap with conventional black light was installed by the Laboratory of entomology of C.I. Tibaitata.

In the export flower farm “The Palms” of American flowers two traps will be installed within a greenhouse.

In total, ten traps were installed, nine of the “solar intelligent insects killer” and one conventional one. They were installed in accordance with the manufacturing instructions and carried out a detailed register of the capture of insects over the period of three months.

During the time of the evaluation, once a week the abundance and diversity of species of captured insects was registered in accordance with the information required in the format of annex 4. Each week the solar panel was cleaned and the water was changed. And in accordance with the evaluation plan the black and white lamps were changed.

When the time period of capturing the insects on the farm was finished, two trap of the city Sibate were installed, with the proposition to evaluate for the capture of mosquitos in the surrounding of reservoirs of Muna. The insects constitute a very serious problem of public health in the city.

INDICES OF DIVERSITY

Given the importance of the agroecosystems in which the sampling are given and with the purpose is to know the entomological composition of the community of the said habitats at least for the species that are captured with this type of trap, with the capture data that was calculated by the indices of richness of species (S) and Margalef’s index of diversity.

RESULTS:

Diversity of insect species

In table 1 the results were related to the identification of the insect species captured during the evaluation of the traps in three localities, from July to September of 2007. Moreover, the taxonomical identification and classification of the insects is indicated by the eating habits or “functional groups” mainly in the taxonomical group in that each species is identified. The total number of individuals captured during the period of evaluation is also taken into account.

In total, 321,891 specimens from 44 species classified in seven orders and 29 families were captured. Of these, 23 species are herbivores, four are predators, five are aquatic species, and two are parasites. Two are blood-suckers, two pollinate flowers, and two that eat organic material during decomposition.

Of these results, it is worth the trouble to point out, besides the high number of herbivores located in the orders Coleptera and Lepidoptera, the abundance of the number of individuals captured were from the families of the order Diptera.

The species in which the largest capture was obtained was Timpula, that corresponds to the medium-sized mosquito. 130,000 individuals were captured.

Within the herbivore species that hold economic importance to the cultivation of high plains crops such as potatoes and garden vegetables, is the “butcher worm’, the “killer of the potato”; the “soldier worm”; the “Guatemalan potato moth”; the “the cabbage-eating diamond back moth”.

The most damaging species—those that cause the most problems in the cultivation of potatoes and vegetables—are of the order Coleoptera. Members of this species were captured.

Plant-eating beetles were captured in the traps, which plays an important ecological role in the agroecosystems evaluated by the study.

Figure 5: Adult soldier worms were captured in the light traps
Figure 6: Moth species were captured in the traps
Figure 7: Economically important species were captured: Ancongnatha scarabaeoides
Figure 8: carrion-eating beetle Figure 9: black bumblebee

Table 1: Insect species captured in light traps during the evaluation period:
Especie Nombre común Orden Familia Hábito - G.F. Total
Sp1 Ancognatha scarabaeoides Chisa Coleoptera Melolonthidae Fitófago 714
Sp2 Ancognatha ustulata Chisa Coleoptera Melolonthidae Fitófago 31
Sp3 Heterogomphus dilaticolis Chisa Coleoptera Melolonthidae Fitófago 29
Sp4 Silpha sp. Escarabajo carroñero Coleoptera Silphidae Carroñero 189
Sp5 Hydrophilus sp. Coquito de agua Coleoptera Hidrophilidae Depredador 420
Sp6 Epitrix sp. Pulguilla Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Fitófago 14
Sp7 Sp7 Rove beetle Coleoptera Staphilinidae Depredador 24
Sp8 Agrotis ipsilon Trozador Lepidoptera Noctuidae Fitófago 1417
SP9 Copitarsia sp. Muque Lepidoptera Noctuidae Fitófago 818
Sp10 Pseudoplusia includens Falso medidor Lepidoptera Noctuidae Fitófago 326
Sp11 Pseudaletia unipunctata Polilla-gusano soldado Lepidoptera Noctuidae Fitófago 1004
Sp12 Erebus odora Polilla Gigante Lepidoptera Noctuidae Fitófago 8
Sp13 Sp13 Polilla mediana Lepidoptera Noctuidae Fitófago 231
Sp14 Halisidota sp. Polilla-gusano peludo Lepidoptera Arctiidae Fitófago 125
Sp15 Tecia solanivora Polilla de la papa Lepidoptera Gelechiidae Fitófago 891
Sp16 Plutella xylostella Polilla dorso de diamante Lepidoptera Plutellidae Fitófago 202
Sp17 Argirotenia sp. Polilla P-blanca Lepidoptera Tortricidae Fitófago 1613
Sp18 Herse cingulata Gusano primavera Lepidoptera Sphingidae Fitófago 102
Sp19 Tipula sp. A Zancudo grande Diptera Tipulidae Acuático 1244
Sp20 Tipula sp. B Zancudo mediano Diptera Tipulidae Acuático 137423
Sp21 Chironomus sp. A Mosquito pequeño Diptera Chironomidae Acuático 71787
Sp22 Chironomus sp. B Mosquito-negro Diptera Chironomidae Acuático 42370
Sp23 Chironomus sp. C Mosquito-blanco Diptera Chironomidae Acuático 45720
Sp24 Aedes sp. Mosquito Diptera Culicidae Hematófago 329
Sp25 Sciara sp. Mosquita gris Diptera Sciaridae Fitófago 4217
Sp26 Psychoda sp. Mosquita alas pintadas Diptera Psychodidae Hematófago 334
Sp27 Plecia sp. Mosca negra Diptera Bibionidae M. orgánica 338
Sp28 Drosophila sp. Mosca de la fruta Diptera Drosophilidae M. orgánica 302
Sp29 Phaemicia sp. Mosca verde Diptera Calliphoridae Carroñero 97
Sp30 Sarcophaga sp. Mosca gris rayada Diptera Sarcophagidae Carroñero 405
Sp31 Archytas sp. Mosca negra Diptera Tachinidae Parasitoide 311
SP32 Diaphorus sp. Mosca verde pequeña Diptera Dolichopodidae Depredador 256
SP33 Hippelates sp. Mosca negra pequeña Diptera Chloropidae Fitófago 2319
Sp34 Closterocerus sp. Avispita Hymenoptera Eulophidae Parasitoide 1842
Sp35 Apis mellifera Abeja Hymenoptera Apidae Polinizador 66
SP36 Bombus atratus Abejorro Hymenoptera Apidae Polinizador 38
Sp37 Nomamyrmex esenbecki Hormiga Hymenoptera Formicidae Fitófago 18
SP38 Hemerobius sp. Brown lacewings Neuroptera Hemerobiidae Depredador 215
Sp39 Thrips sp. Trips Tysanoptera Thypidae Fitófago 140
Sp40 Sp 40 Chinche Hemiptera Miridae Fitófago 88
Sp41 Tuta absoluta Cogollero Lepidoptera Gelechiidae Fitófago 29
Sp42 Liriomyza sp. Minador Diptera Agromyzidae Fitófago 29
Sp43 Sp43 Polilla oscura Lepidoptera Gelechiidae Fitófago 2755
Sp44 Sp44 Otras ---------------- -------------------- Varios 61
Total 321.891


Richness of species:

The index of richness expresses specifically the number of species captured in each habitat or ecosystem (table 2). It indicates that the habitat with the most richness was that of the prairie or pasture of the savanna of Bogota, with 43 species of the 44 total registered on table 1. It is worth noting that in this habitat three traps are located: one in the C.C. Tibaitata, and two in the Experimental Station of the Military University of New Granada. 32 species of peas are registered in this habitat. 13 species of tomatoes are registered. It is also worth noting that the habitats with the least richness were those cultivated in a greenhouse. This can be explained, besides the effectiveness of the cover of the crops, by the measures of controls of plagues that were taken on these crops.

Observations on the quality and functionality of the traps:

For information on the manufacture of the traps, the quality of the materials of the traps should be taken into account, as well as it’s operation.

Since the installation of the traps some deficiencies in the structure and support of the traps was detected. For example, the points of welding of support of the water recepticle were not solid, and some rods fell off very easily. The points of welding of the electrical installations also fell apart. The threads, cords, and tube materials present deficiencies of the factory. In some lamps the “socket” of the bulbs fell off after only a short term of use.

Some of the black light bulbs as the white ones stopped working after just a few hours of use.

Although this series of deficiencies in the quality was corrected in the middle of the investigation, the traps can eventually be rendered useless.

Since the experiment began, it was discovered that the sensors that activate the lamps require a lot of darkness to light the bulbs. This is a disadvantage because the traps begin to work around seven in the evening when the activity of some insect species have declined substantially.

For the other part, it appears that the power of accumulation of electric energy isn’t sufficient to maintain the lamps all night long, given that the hour that it is turned off fluctuated between 10 I the night and 1 in the morning. None of the traps remained lit past this hour.


Conclusions and recommendations:
We can conclude based on the results obtained in these experiments that
The SILK light traps evaluated here, show to be efficient in the capture of herbivore plague insects, and to a smaller degree other groups of blood-sucking insects, predators, parasites, and pollinizing insects. As happens with other light traps, this indicates little specificity. This is important when considering recommending them as a direct measure of the control of plagues.

Keeping in mind that the insect plagues of greater economic importance, in order, these were: Coleoptera familyMelolonthidae the species of chisa Ancognatha scarabaeoides and A. ustulata and in the order Lepidoptera Noctuidae the species Agrotis ipsilon, Copitarsia sp. Pseudaletia unipunctata. We recommend the use of these traps in pest management programs for surveillance throughout the crop-growing period as a control measure in times of severe plagues. For the problem of the insects in the greenhouse crops we recommend utilizing the traps during the wet season of April-May or September-October.

Given that the traps function with solar panels, this constitutes a huge advantage over the conventional traps that function with electric energy and require a connection to a battery of an electric outlet, which is a huge limitation.

We recommend the evaluation of the traps in warm climates and in crops like plantains and bananas, or palm oil for the prevention of plagues like the palm oil worm. The traps are of grave economic importance in Stenoma cecropia, given that this species is easily attracted to the light traps.


Report on Test and Demonstration of Pest Killing Effectiveness of Intelligent Solar Insect Killer (Model No.: FWS-DBL-2) in Rice Farms

1. This report is presented by Plant Protection Station of Hubei Province and Hubei Modern Agriculture Exhibition Center.
2. Qty of Intelligent Solar Insect Killer: 2 sets cover 40 acres
3. Testing period: Jun. 4th---Sep. 1st, 2009. (93 days in total)
4. Testing object: Rice
5. Testing results: Chemicals or pesticide decreased by 60-70% after application of Intelligent Solar Insect Killer (Model No.: FWS-DBL-2).

Detailed Data of Pests Killed by Intelligent Solar Insect Killer (Model No.: FWS-DBL-2)

Report on Test and Demonstration of Pest Killing Effectiveness of Intelligent Solar Insect Killer in Apple Farms


The Plant Protection Station of Shan’xi Province arranged tests on pests killing in apple trees by adopting Intelligent Solar Insect Killer (Model No.:FWS-DBL-2) developed by Shenzhen Fuwaysun Technology Co., Ltd in Baishui Town and Luochuan Town. The test report is as followed:

Materials and Methods
1. Testing material: Intelligent Solar Insect Killer (Model No.: FWS-DBL-2) produced by Shenzhen Fuwaysun Technology Co., Ltd.
2. Testing object: Apple trees, mainly Red Fuji type, 8years old.
3. Time and place of the test:
Time: June 12th—July 12th, 2009
Place: BeijingTou Nanzhang Quality & Standard Apple Farm, Raohe Anle High Quality & Standard Apple Farm in Baishui Town; Yongxiang Xi’angong Village, Huangzhang Fangxiang Village Quality & Standard Apple Farm in Luochuan Town.
4. Methods:
Put two sets of Intelligent Solar Insect Killer (Model No.: FWS-DBL-2) in two apple tree farms separately, then place a plastic tubs with 10cm-thick clean water about 40cm below the attracting light. The radius of covering areas for this Intelligent Solar Insect Killer is about 145m (30-50 acres). The attracting light works automatically after dark at about 6:30pm and attracts pests around by giving out specific wavelength. The pests would feel dizzy and fall into the water by the stimulation of wavelength and wave frequency and then drown. The Intelligent Solar Insect Killer turns off automatically at 2:30am. Its low light intensity solar panel transforms sunshine into power and stores it automatically for pests killing at night. The machine is designed with light control, rain control, time control and voltage protection.
Our staffs checked the types of pests every 3 days; we classified and collected the pests for analysis at 7 o’clock every morning. The dirty water was replaced by clean one every 3days.

Findings
According to the tests, the types of pests killed:
Lepidoptera: apple leaf miner, apple olethreutid;
Coleoptera: cockchafer;
Homoptera: green leaf hopper;
Hemiptera: stinkbugs.
Among the 26160 pests killed, the Lepidoptera took up 51.5% of the total amount (65% of breeding female adult pests and 35% of male). Next was Coleoptera accounting for 26.65% (55% of breeding female adult pests and 45% male) and others 21.85%.

III. Conclusion
This Intelligent Solar Insect Killer (Model No.: FWS-DBL-2) could attract and kill 1130 various pests at most every day. Generally speaking, at least 313 pests could be killed per day. Averagely, 872 pests could be killed every day. After the usage of this Intelligent Solar Insect Killer, the amount of pests belonging to Lepidoptera and Coleoptera reduced dramatically and the density of pests in this farm decreased by 85%. Besides, the costs of pesticide were cut down and the frequency of using chemicals was reduced.
For one thing, this Intelligent Solar Insect Killer adopts special plastic tubs and 12V safe voltage instead of high-voltage electric net. In this way, the pests’ residual problem is solved. In addition, the radius of light covering areas is specially designed to 145 meters and the height of the light is set to 2 meters as well in order to attract and kill those pests which cannot fly for a long time or those with a lot of eggs or those hiding under the root of apple trees more effectively. In other words, the killing rate increased.
For another, differing from traditional insect killer, this Intelligent Solar Insect Killer applies special wavelength and intelligent time control. It equips with the intelligent system of light control, rain control, time control and voltage protection. This Intelligent Solar Insect Killer stores electricity automatically at daytime, while it starts to work at night. It’s needed to point out that electric wire or specific staff employed to keep an eye on the machine are not required.
Last but not least, this Intelligent Solar Insect Killer is safe to human beings and animals; it is friendly both to the environment and the natural enemies as well. Thus, this machine is good for sustainable control of pests. Meanwhile, thanks to this machine, the usage of chemicals and pesticide in this apple farm reduced 1 to 2 times each month. It would definitely be helpful for green control of agricultural pests. Therefore, it’s strongly recommended that more crops and more farms should bring in this Intelligent Solar Insect Killer in order to better promote throughout the whole province.


Plant Protection Station of Shan’xi Province
June 24th, 2010


Intellect Solar Insect Killers testing report for orange farms


Shi Hui city of Guang Dong Province ,China has purchased Hi-Tech intellect solar insect killers, carried on the first testing for 150 acres orange farms in MaPo village, Ha Mao Town, 3 units of solar insect killer and technical skill was provided by ShenZhen Fuwaysun Technology Co., Ltd, and we got very good results.

A : Testing process :
In the highest location of the hills, 3 units of solar insect killer were installed there, each solar insect killer could cover 50 acres area. Testing time : from March 5.2007 to Sep.5.2007, attract light bulb switch on automaticly at 6:30 in the evening, and switch off automaticly at 2:30 at midnight, testing day : 180 days, excepted 28 rainy days, actly total 152 days, every day, the assigned students from our entomology department collected different kinds of insects from the water containers, then counted and analysed, make it in
Summary.

B : Analyse for testing results:
Got very good results for the testing. Base on the 6 months counted report, the killed insects name as following : orange N.Lugens,Bemisia tabaci,Apriona germari,Anoplophora malasiaca,Prodenia Litura, Agrotis ypsilon,Anomala corpulenta, Helicoverpa armigera, Scotinophara Lurida, Arctornis alba, Buzumra Supprearia Guenee,plusia agnala standinger, Fruit fly, Termite, Odontotermes formosanus. In general average killed 355-826 pcs per day from each light bulb, the most one is 3,852 pcs per day from each light bulb, the less one is 296 pcs per day from each light bulb.

C : Benefit analyse :
1 . economy benefit : comparing with AC sparking insect killers, reduced the cost of cabling total RMB 15,000.00, safety for human being. Within 6 months reduced 18 times chemical liquid spray, save cost of chemical liquid total RMB 12,000.00, and reduced labour cost. Because of no chemical liquid stick on the oranges, comparing with the oranges with chemical liquid spray, the unit price for the one without chemical liquid rised 15%-20% in marketing.
2 . environment and society benefit : use solar insect killer, can avoid chemical liquid stay in water, revers and soil, reduced pollutions. Save energy.can protect the natural enemy, balance the environment, can make the orange farms have nice light decorating at night. In general it has very good environment and society benefit, suggest to use more for fruit farms.


Reported by : SuYen Gun/Zhing Zhong
Confirmed by : Zheng Bin Nan
outh China Agricultural university, college of Resources and Environment.
This testing report is translated from the original Chinese report, please refer the Chinese one.
The Application and Promotion of Intelligent Solar Pest Killer